Kenosis Links

Contemporary Writings

R.C. Sproul, "How Could Jesus Be Both Divine and Human?" 2pp
What would happen if God laid aside one of His attributes for one second to become man? This is an excellent starting point for studying the current crisis among Christians in our understanding of the person of Christ.

Trinitarian Bible Society, "The Problematic Translation of 'emptied himself' as found in Philippians 2.7," by G.W. Anderson, 4pp
In trying to avoid the problems with the phrase, "emptied himself," the phrase "made himself nothing" has created even more problems among modern translations OUTLINE: I. The problem Stated, II. Reformed Commentators, B.B. Warfield, John Murray, III. The Problem Avoided, Endnotes. . "B.B. Warfield claimed that the translation 'emptied himself' is 'a mistranslation.'"

Official Catholic Teaching
One of the most illuminating windows into the early fathers' views of Christ's dual nature is found in the theotokos documents from the Council of Ephesus, 431.

Catechism of the Catholic Church, The Profession of Faith, section two, article 3 - "He was conceived by the power of the Holy Spirit, and was born of the virgin Mary," Paragraph I. The Son of God Became man. 5pp
Quoting from the Council of Chalcedon to describe the incarnation is sufficient in dispelling any notion that Christ ever limited himself in any of His divine attributes. In addition, "What He was, he remained and what He was not, He assumed." OUTLINE: I. Why did the word become flesh? II. The Incarnation III. True God and True Man IV. How is the Son of God man? In Brief.

Catholic Encyclopedia, "The Incarnation," by Walter Drum, 21pp
Biblical & historical scholarship does not get any better. "The aim of this article is to prove that the historical person, Jesus Christ, is really and truly God." OUTLINE: I. THE FACT OF THE INCARNATION (1) The Divine Person of Jesus Christ, A. Old Testament proofs, B. New Testament proofs, C. Witness of Tradition (includes testimony of pagan writers), (2) The human nature of Jesus Christ (3) The hypostatic union of the Divine Nature and the human nature of Jesus in the Divine Person of Jesus Christ A. The witness of Holy Writ, B. Witness of tradition. II. THE NATURE OF THE INCARNATION (1) Nestorianism, (2) Monophysitism, (3) Monothelitism, (4) The Catholic Faith. III. EFFECTS OF THE INCARNATION (1) On Christ Himself A. On the body of Christ, B. On the human soul of Christ, C. On the God-Man (Deus-homo, theanthropos). (2) The adoration of the humanity of Christ. (3) Other effects of the incarnation, Bibliography.

Charles Buntin, "The Empty God," 11pp
Subtitled, "A Biblical and Theological Answer to the False Doctrine of Kenosis." Excellent! OUTLINE: Introduction, I. The doctrine of kenosis, A Classic Kenotic teaching, B. Comparison with the view of Kenneth Copeland (as a representative of the "Faith Message" school of thought, C. General comment, II. A positive affirmation, from Scripture, of the orthodox position on Christ's humiliation in relation to Philippians 2:5-11, A. The self-emptying of Christ was mainly an emptying of the external trappings of glory of deity. B. Do the Scriptures bear out that He possessed the attributes and powers of deity while on earth? C. Having looked at the issue piecemeal, we can now conclude it with the powerful testimony of the book of Colossians. III. A critical refutation, from Scripture and from Evangelical scholars, of the things implied and taught by the Kenosis doctrine. A. The philosophical and theological bases for the Doctrine of kenosis are highly suspect. B. The vital doctrine of immutability is completely destroyed by kenotic teaching. C. If the God-Man who died on the cross was not booth fully God and fully Man, the integrity of the atonement is destroyed. IV. An alternative method of handling the "problem " verses without deviating from orthodox Christology. A. Understanding the Biblical doctrine of the two natures of Christ, B. Understanding His role as our Kinsman-redeemer and substitute, C. Understanding and admitting the existence of the Biblical concept of 'mystery.' D. The three core concepts related above should help us understand how Christ lived His life on earth. E. It is from applying the core concepts above that we can construct meaningful and orthodox answers to the questions of those who refuse to believe in the God of the Bible.

Christian Think Tank, "The Trinity, IIIex, The NT Witness: Other data relative to the deity of Jesus," 16pp
A superb apologetic work. OUTLINE: -The issue of "blasphemy." -The use of the phrase "the Name." -The Nomina Sacra of the early church. -The "humiliation" motif. -The "Pattern Identification" issue. "If one compares the OT attributes, titles, actions, and commitments of YHWH to those of Jesus in the NT, a distinct pattern of identity emerges." The author lists 25 powerful parallels identifying Christ with YHWH. -The issue of "Worship refusal." -The "No correction" issue. "There is not the slightest hint in the NT that Jesus was NOT to be worshipped..." -Could the early Church have divinnized Jesus? -Summary.